If you are just getting started with woodworking these are some basic measuring and marking tools that you should own.
Having a measuring tape handy helps you take measures on the fly. Measuring tapes are available in "Imperial" format or "Standard" / metric version. Typical lengths are 16, 25 and 30 feet.
Always keep at least one good ruler in your workshop. You will use a ruler for a wide range of tasks, like plan drawing, measuring of material, table saw wing alignment and surface regularity check, among other things. It's always better to invest in a steel ruler.
If you are just getting started with woodworking, buying a combination square is an excellent investment.
A combination square will help you measure 90 ° and 45 ° angles, determine flatness, measure the center of a circular bar and mark the work surface.
A classic combination square consists of: 1) a square head and 2) a steel ruler. By sliding the square head along the steel ruler, it is possible to depth gauge or transfer dimensions.
A framing square (also called steel square or carpenter's square) is also another useful tool to own. It is made of steel and consists of 2 arms: a long arm and a short arm meeting at 90 °.
Having a framing square will allow you to measure any construction design that you need. Typically, framing squares can be found with a 24 inch blade and a 16 inch tongue. There are also smaller ones but they come without the framing tables.
The marking gauge is used to mark out lines before cutting. It allows you to draw a line parallel to a reference edge. Generally, the marking gauge consists of a beam, headstock, pen, pin, wheel and knife.
The scratch awl is basically a steel spike with a sharp tip. It etches a shallow groove on the wood that you can follow when using a hand saw or a chisel.
Using a sliding bevel, wood cutting will be much, much easier and smoother. The sliding bevel is basically a gauge that allows you to set and transfer angles. It consists of a handle, usually made of wood or plastic, connected to an adjustable metal blade.
The Drawknife cutting tool is classically used by chair makers. It usually consists of an 8-12 inch long straight blade and perpendicular handles at each end.
The Froe (also called lathe ax and splitting knife) is a tool used for riveting or splitting. The froe has an 8-12 inch long straight blade and a perpendicular handle at its end.
The Scorp is a drawknife with an almost completely circular blade. Very handy to hollow out bowls and similar objects.
The Utility Knife is a knife with has a retractable blade that is sheathed inside a metal handle. Available in all sorts of sizes, the utility knife is used in woodworking to cut all types of materials.
The dial gauge is a caliper with a dial readout in the hundredths or thousandths of an inch. You can use it to measure the depth of a hole. It's an ideal tool to use for precision measurements from cylindrical tenons and mortises.